ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 40-44

N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, and methylene blue for the treatment of aluminium phosphide poisoning: Still beneficial?


1 Department of Clinical Toxicology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
5 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
6 Isfahan Clinical Toxicology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee
Isfahan Clinical Toxicology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
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DOI: 10.4103/0971-6580.172255

PMID: 26862259

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Objectives: Intentional and accidental intoxication with aluminium phosphide (ALP) remains a clinical problem, especially in the Middle East region. Considering the high mortality rate besides lack of any recommended first option drug for its treatment, this study was aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C (Vit C), and methylene blue; both in isolate and also in combination, for the treatment of ALP intoxication in a rat model. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal study, 80 male Wistar rats in eight groups were intoxicated with ALP (12.5 mg/kg) and treated with a single dose of NAC (100 mg/kg) or Vit C (500–1,000 mg/kg) or methylene blue (1 mg/kg/5 min, 0.1%) or two of these agents or all three of them (controls were not treated). Rats were monitored regarding the parameters of drug efficacy as increased survival time and reduced morbidity and mortality rate for 3 consecutive days to ensure toxin neutralization. Macroscopic changes were recorded and biopsy sections were taken from brain, cerebellum, kidney, liver, and heart for microscopic evaluation regarding cellular hypoxia. Results: The mean survival times of rats exposed to ALP and treated with VitC + NAC was 210.55±236.22 minutes. In analysis of survival times, there was a significant difference between Group 5 which received VitC + NAC and the other groups (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium levels after death were higher than normal (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Despite the higher survival rate of antioxidant-treated rats compared with controls, this difference was not statistically significant.


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