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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-April 2015
Volume 22 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-173

Online since Monday, December 21, 2015

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Amelioration effect of zinc and iron supplementation on selected oxidative stress enzymes in liver and kidney of cadmium-treated male albino rat p. 1
Obaiah Jamakala, Usha A Rani
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172289  PMID:26862254
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues.
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Preclinical safety assessment of standardized extract of Centella asiatica (L.) urban leaves p. 10
Pallavi O Deshpande, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Thakurdesai
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172251  PMID:26862255
Context: Centella asiatica (CA) leaves extract has been shown therapeutic potential. However, safety information is lacking. Aims: To evaluate acute oral toxicity (AOT), sub-chronic toxicity, and mutagenic potential of standardized extract of CA (L.) Urban leaves (INDCA). Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, INDCA was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose range of 0–2000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the rats of either sex were orally administered with INDCA at the doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day for a period of 90 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. The mutagenic potential of INDCA was tested using reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Statistical Analysis Used: Data of each parameter were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test to compare the difference between treated groups. Results: The administration of INDCA did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs included but not limited to changes in the skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, and also respiratory, circulatory, autonomic and central nervous systems, somatomotor activity, and behavior pattern. The appearance, progress, and disappearance of these signs were recorded. The lethal dose and no observable adverse effect level of INDCA were 2000 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. There were no significant differences in the organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. It was found to be nonmutagenic in reverse mutation assay. Conclusions: INDCA was found safe in AOT, sub-chronic toxicity, and mutagenicity studies when tested in rats.
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Terminalia chebula attenuates DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced oxidative stress and inflammation in Swiss albino mouse skin p. 21
Ferial Majed, Sana Nafees, Summya Rashid, Nemat Ali, Syed Kazim Hasan, Rashid Ali, Ayaz Shahid, Sarwat Sultana
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172252  PMID:26862256
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate underlying molecular mechanism for antitumorigenic potential of Terminalia chebula (TC) against chemically-induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. It is used as herbal medicine because it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activity. However, the précised underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Materials and Methods: In light of the important role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress in carcinogenesis, chemopreventive efficacy of TC against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA), and croton oil-induced 2-stage skin carcinogenesis was studied in terms of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO), inflammatory responses, and expression of various molecular markers in skin tissues. Results: We found that topical application of TC at dose of 30 mg/kg b. wt. mouse effectively suppressed oxidative stress and deregulated activation of inflammatory mediators and tumorigenesis. Histological findings further supported the protective effects of TC against DMBA/croton oil-induced cutaneous damage. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the chemopreventive effect of TC is associated with upregulation of endogenous cytoprotective machinery and downregulation of inflammatory mediators (interleukin (IL)-6, COX-2, i-NOS, ODC, and NF-κB).
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Paraquat poisoning: Analysis of an uncommon cause of fatal poisoning from Manipal, South India p. 30
Tanuj Kanchan, Shankar M Bakkannavar, Preetham R Acharya
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172253  PMID:26862257
Background: Morbidity and mortality related to acute poisoning is a serious health concern worldwide. Paraquat is known to be responsible for a number of acute poisonings in south India. Aim: The study aims at presenting the various aspects of paraquat poisoning that include patient profile, clinical presentation, end-organ complications, and observations at autopsy. Materials and Methods: The present registry-based retrospective research was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. All the confirmed cases of paraquat poisoning were included in the present study. The postmortem and hospital records of these patients were retrieved and relevant information was collected and analyzed. Results: Paraquat poisonings constituted 14.4% of the total poisoning fatalities during the study period. Equal number of males and females were observed in the present study. The victims were aged between 17 and 65 years (mean ± SD = 30.2 ± 13.1 years). Manner of death was suicidal in 92.9% cases. Common presenting symptoms after ingestion of paraquat included vomiting, followed by difficulty in breathing. In the present series, overall survival post paraquat consumption ranged between 10 h and 25 days. Half of the victims died within 2 days of consumption of poison. The underlying cause of death included acute renal failure (ARF), adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure (MOF), acute liver failure, etc., In all the cases, brain was congested and edematous, and visceral organs showed marked congestion at autopsy. Lungs were congested with marked edema in 10 cases. Conclusion: It is recommended that the availability of this highly toxic substance be restricted so as to prevent its misuse as a method of suicide.
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Beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis on Fluoride-induced toxicity on brain biochemical indexes and learning-memory in rats p. 35
Bhinda Shalini, JD Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172254  PMID:26862258
Aims: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Emblica officinalis against fluoride-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. Design: The healthy adult albino rats of Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus) weighed 200–250 g were used for experiments. The animals were divided into three groups. Group I, control rats received only drinking water (F 0.9 ppm). Group II rats were exposed to fluoride (10 ppm) water for 60 days. Group III rats were treated with E. officinalis (100 mg/day/rat) along with fluoride water for 60 days. In order to investigate the effects of elevated levels of fluoride (10 ppm) in drinking water on behavioral pattern of rat, a maze test was carried out in all three groups from day 1 till completion of treatment. Materials and Methods: The animals were weighed before and after treatment. After respective treatment, the animals were autopsied. The blood was collected through cardiac puncture and brain was excised blotted free of blood weighed and used for biochemical parameters. The estimation of protein, enzyme activity of cholinesterase (ChE), and lipid peroxidation were carried out in brain using standard techniques. Results: The tissue (brain) and serum fluoride was estimated by a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion). Learning and memory abilities assessed during maze test showed reduced memory retention in rats exposed to fluoride water in comparison to control whereas amla powder (E. officinalis) fed rats showed increased memory retention than fluoride water exposed rats. The protein content and ChE enzyme activity in brain of fluoride exposed rats diminished as compared to control whereas the same was found to be elevated in E. officinalis fed rats. The level of malanoaldehyde showed a significant increase in fluoride-treated group and decrease in E. officinalis treated group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure of rats to Na-F has detrimental effects on the brain as reflected in diminished learning and memory. Administration of E. officinalis during fluoride exposure significantly overcome neuronal fluoride toxicity and, therefore, may be used as a therapeutic agent for fluorotic victims.
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N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, and methylene blue for the treatment of aluminium phosphide poisoning: Still beneficial? p. 40
Farzad Gheshlaghi, Mohamad Reza Lavasanijou, Noushin Afshar Moghaddam, Majid Khazaei, Mohaddeseh Behjati, Ziba Farajzadegan, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172255  PMID:26862259
Objectives: Intentional and accidental intoxication with aluminium phosphide (ALP) remains a clinical problem, especially in the Middle East region. Considering the high mortality rate besides lack of any recommended first option drug for its treatment, this study was aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C (Vit C), and methylene blue; both in isolate and also in combination, for the treatment of ALP intoxication in a rat model. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal study, 80 male Wistar rats in eight groups were intoxicated with ALP (12.5 mg/kg) and treated with a single dose of NAC (100 mg/kg) or Vit C (500–1,000 mg/kg) or methylene blue (1 mg/kg/5 min, 0.1%) or two of these agents or all three of them (controls were not treated). Rats were monitored regarding the parameters of drug efficacy as increased survival time and reduced morbidity and mortality rate for 3 consecutive days to ensure toxin neutralization. Macroscopic changes were recorded and biopsy sections were taken from brain, cerebellum, kidney, liver, and heart for microscopic evaluation regarding cellular hypoxia. Results: The mean survival times of rats exposed to ALP and treated with VitC + NAC was 210.55±236.22 minutes. In analysis of survival times, there was a significant difference between Group 5 which received VitC + NAC and the other groups (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium levels after death were higher than normal (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Despite the higher survival rate of antioxidant-treated rats compared with controls, this difference was not statistically significant.
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Impact of organic contamination on some aquatic organisms p. 45
El-Nahhal Yasser, El-Najjar Shawkat, Afifi Samir
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172256  PMID:26862260
Background: Contamination of water systems with organic compounds of agricultural uses pose threats to aquatic organisms. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diuron were considered as model aquatic pollutants in this study. The main objective of this study was to characterize the toxicity of organic contamination to two different aquatic organisms. Materials and Methods: Low concentrations (0.0–60 µmol/L) of carbaryl, diuron and very low concentration (0.0–0.14 µmol/L) of chlorpyrifos and their mixtures were tested against fish and Daphnia magna. Percentage of death and immobilization were taken as indicators of toxicity. Results: Toxicity results to fish and D. magna showed that chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound (LC50to fish and D. magna are 0.08, and 0.001 µmol/L respectively), followed by carbaryl (LC50to fish and D. magna are 43.19 and 0.031 µmol/L), while diuron was the least toxic one (LC50values for fish and D. magna are 43.48 and 32.11 µmol/L respectively). Mixture toxicity (binary and tertiary mixtures) showed antagonistic effects. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference among mixture toxicities to fish and D. magma. Conclusion: Fish and D. magam were sensitive to low concentrations. These data suggest potent threats to aquatic organisms from organic contamination.
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Assessment of antioxidant potential and acute toxicity studies of whole plant extract of pergularia daemia (Forsk) p. 54
Veluchamy Vaithiyanathan, Sankaran Mirunalini
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172257  PMID:26862261
Background: Pergularia daemia (Asclepiadacea) is a fetid- smelling perennial herb growing well along the river bang and road sides of India. Naturally the plant has powerful antioxidants including polyphenols, flavanoids, steroids and terpenoids. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential and to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of crude ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pergularia daemia. The plant Pergularia daemia possess effective scavenging activity against 2, 2' azino bis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline 6 sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide and reducing power radicals at different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 & 500 µg/mL) of both extracts. Results: From the above in vitro assay we have exposed that the methanolic extract exert higher antioxidant activity at 400 µg/mL than ethyl acetate extract. Acute toxicity study revealed that the extracts showed no signs of toxicity upto a dose level of 2500 mg/kg b.wt. Conclusion: Thus our findings provide that both extracts of Pergularia daemia possess a strong antioxidant capacity and are relatively has high margin of safety.
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Evaluation of toxicity effects of asafetida on biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters in male wistar rats p. 61
Seyyed Majid Bagheri, Maryam Yadegari, Aghdas Mirjalily, Mohammd Ebrahim Rezvani
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172258  PMID:26862262
Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors.
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Clinico-epidemiological profile of snakebite cases admitted in a tertiary care Centre in South India: A 5 years study p. 66
Rekha Thapar, BB Darshan, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Prasanna Mithra, Nithin Kumar, Vaman Kulkarni, Ramesh Holla, Avinash Kumar, Tanuj Kanchan
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172260  PMID:26862263
Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the clinic-epidemiological profile of snakebite cases admitted at a Tertiary Care Centre in South India. Materials and Methods: A record based retrospective study was carried out at Kasturbha Medical College affiliated hospitals in Mangalore. All the snakebite cases admitted to the hospitals from January 2007 to December 2011 were included in the study. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5). The results are expressed as percentages. Results: The study included 198 cases of snakebite victims. The majority of the cases were males (68.2%). The mean age of the study population was 34.8 years. Maximum numbers of snakebite cases were reported during the month of September to December (47.9%). The peak time of snakebite was between 18.01 and 24.00 h which was reported in 40.5% of the cases. Lower extremities were the most common site of bite in more than three-fourth of the cases (80.9%). The most common symptoms were a pain (45.9%) and swelling (44.9%). The case fatality rate was observed to be 3.0%. Conclusion: Snakebite still remains a major public health problem in this part of the world. Knowledge must be imparted regarding the prevention of snakebites through community health programs. Messages regarding prompt reporting of such cases and importance of effective treatment must be disseminated among people through mass media and role plays.
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Oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (bloch) exposed to sodium fluoride: Antioxidant Defense and role of ascorbic acid p. 71
Shiv Shankar Yadav, Rajesh Kumar, Puneet Khare, Madhu Tripathi
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172261  PMID:26862264
The present study highlights fluoride -induced toxicity and the protective role of ascorbic acid in the liver and ovary of freshwater fish, Heteropneustis fossilis. The fish specimens were exposed to different concentrations (35 mg F/L and 70 mg F/L) of fluoride. Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied at the end of the experiment. The biomarkers selected for the study were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances for assessing the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant defense system such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. The fluoride exposure significantly elevated the level of LPO, CAT, SOD, and GST in the tissues of treated group as well as modulated the activities of GSH and level of GPx after exposure as compared to the control. A significant decrease in GPx activity was found in these tissues suggesting that fluoride exposure increases the level of free radical, as well as CAT activity. Pre- and post treatment with ascorbic acid decreased the LPO, SOD, CAT, GST level, and increased GSH, GPx levels in the liver and ovary.
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Clinico-epidemiological profile of snake bites over 6-year period from a rural secondary care centre of Northern India: A descriptive study p. 77
Shubhanker Mitra, Abhinav Agarwal, BU Shubhankar, Sahil Masih, Viswajit Krothapalli, Brian Mark Lee, Jeevan Kuruvilla, Reginald Alex
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172263  PMID:26862265
Estimated deaths due to snake bites are more than 46,000 annually in India. Ninety-seven percent bites occur in rural areas. Data on snake bites from Jharkhand rural area are sparse. This study describes 6 years profile of snake bite patients from January, 2007 to December, 2012 at Nav Jivan Hospital in Palamu district, Jharkhand.
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Dose dependent effect of Iso-Octane on HaCaT: A model study p. 83
Lopamudra Das, Soumen Das, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172264  
Objective: Improved understanding of cytotoxicity under chemical assaults may be achieved by multimodal analysis of cellular morphology, viability, molecular expressions, and biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: In this study dose-dependent effects of an organic solvent (OS), iso-octane (IO), known to cause skin irritation, has been explored multimodally for understanding its effect on structural and functional profile of normal epithelial cell population in vitro. Results: Under IO exposures, after 5 h there was a sharp decrease in viability of HaCaT with increasing doses which may be due to disruption in cellular association noted via immunocytochemical study and was further supported by the decreased expression of E-cadherin at transcriptomic level. Dislocation of E-cadherin from membrane to the cytoplasm occurred with increasing doses. The dose-dependent changes in varied aspects of bioelectrical properties, having plausible correlation with cellular viability, association, and adherence were noteworthy at 5 h of IO exposure. Evaluation of biomechanical properties by micropipette aspiration showed a distinct change in cellular stiffness in terms of increase in suction force and post-suction alteration in cellular shape. The cells became stiffer and fragile with increasing IO doses. Conclusion: Present study explicated dose–dependent cytotoxicity of IO on HaCaT and explored the usefulness of this approach to develop in vitro model system to evaluate epithelial toxicity with level-free markers.
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Dose dependent effect of Iso-Octane on HaCaT: A model study p. 83
Lopamudra Das, Soumen Das, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172264  
Objective: Improved understanding of cytotoxicity under chemical assaults may be achieved by multimodal analysis of cellular morphology, viability, molecular expressions, and biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: In this study dose-dependent effects of an organic solvent (OS), iso-octane (IO), known to cause skin irritation, has been explored multimodally for understanding its effect on structural and functional profile of normal epithelial cell population in vitro. Results: Under IO exposures, after 5 h there was a sharp decrease in viability of HaCaT with increasing doses which may be due to disruption in cellular association noted via immunocytochemical study and was further supported by the decreased expression of E-cadherin at transcriptomic level. Dislocation of E-cadherin from membrane to the cytoplasm occurred with increasing doses. The dose-dependent changes in varied aspects of bioelectrical properties, having plausible correlation with cellular viability, association, and adherence were noteworthy at 5 h of IO exposure. Evaluation of biomechanical properties by micropipette aspiration showed a distinct change in cellular stiffness in terms of increase in suction force and post-suction alteration in cellular shape. The cells became stiffer and fragile with increasing IO doses. Conclusion: Present study explicated dose–dependent cytotoxicity of IO on HaCaT and explored the usefulness of this approach to develop in vitro model system to evaluate epithelial toxicity with level-free markers.
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Protective effects of propofol against Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity p. 92
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Ehsan Zamani, Mona Mehrzad, Yazdan Norian, Fatemeh Shaki
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172250  PMID:26862267
Context: Methamphetamine (METH) is widely abused in worldwide. METH use could damage the dopaminergic system and induce neurotoxicity via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Propofol, a sedative-hypnotic agent, is known for its antioxidant properties. In this study, we used propofol for attenuating of METH-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Subjects and Methods: We used Wistar rats that the groups (six rats each group) were as follows: Control, METH (5 mg/kg IP), and propofol (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IP) was administered 30 min before METH. After 24 h, animals were killed, brain tissue was separated and the mitochondrial fraction was isolated, and oxidative stress markers were measured. Results: Our results showed that METH significantly increased oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species formation and glutathione oxidation in the brain, and isolated mitochondria. Propofol significantly inhibited METH-induced oxidative stress in the brain and isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial function decreased dramatically after METH administration that propofol pretreatment significantly improved mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial swelling and catalase activity also increased after METH exposure but was significantly decreased with propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that propofol prevented METH-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequently METH-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, the effectiveness of this antioxidant should be evaluated for the treatment of METH toxicity and neurodegenerative disease.
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Effect of cypermethrin on the growth of ciliate protozoan Paramecium caudatum p. 100
Joydeep Dutta
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172282  PMID:26862268
Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of cypermethrin on the growth of ciliate protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Materials and Methods: Monoxenic culture of P. caudatum, were exposed to different doses (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 µg/L) of cypermethrin along with control for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h time interval. The total numbers of live and dead cells were counted after trypan blue staining in Neubauer hemocytometer. Results: Marked decrease in the number of living cells with the increase in the concentration of cypermethrin and with increasing exposure time intervals was recorded. Conclusion: The results indicate that cypermethrin is toxic to P. caudatum even at low concentrations when it enters in the aquatic system through runoff.
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A multidisciplinary approach with hyperbaric oxygen therapy improve outcome in snake bite injuries p. 104
Pradeoth Mukundan Korambayil, Prashanth Varkey Ambookan, Siju Varghese Abraham, Ajay Ambalakat
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172287  PMID:26862269
Aim: Snakebite injuries are common in tropical India among those who are involved in outdoor activities. These injuries results in cellulitis, gangrene at the bite area, bleeding manifestations, compartment syndrome, regional lymphadenopathy, septicemia, hypotension, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to share our experience of multidisciplinary approach in the management of snakebite injuries of the extremities with various treatment modalities including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy, surgical debridement, and soft tissue reconstruction to provide an effective treatment for snake bite injuries. Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery, during the period October 2012–December 2014, wherein all the patients who were admitted with snakebite injuries were enrolled and the patients treated in plastic surgery department were included into the study. Out of total 766 patients, there were 323 patients treated with anti snake venom (ASV) and 29 died among the treated patients; 205 patients belonged to pediatric age group. Results: Out of 112 patients referred to Department of Plastic Surgery, 50 cases presented with cellulitis, 24 patients with compartment syndrome, and 38 patients were referred for the management of soft tissue cover over the extremities. Among 112 patients, 77 involved the lower extremity and 35 the upper extremity. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approach including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy improves outcome in the management of snakebite injuries of the extremities.
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Effect of repeated administration of cefquinome on biochemical and hematological parameters in buffalo calves p. 110
Mukesh Mangal, Suresh Kumar Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172267  PMID:26862270
Aim: Cefquinome, a fourth generation of cephalosporins have been developed for use in animals. Similar to other species, it may also have some adverse reactions in buffalo calves at therapeutic dosage. In the present study, effect of repeated administration of cefquinome on biochemical and hematological parameters was studied in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two groups having three animals in each group. Group 1 was kept as control and animals of Group 2 were given cefquinome at dose rate of 2 mg.kg−1 body weight by intramuscular route for continuously 7 days. Blood samples were collected daily and 3 days post treatment. Results: The values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) in control animals were in the range of 127.7–148.3 IU/L,49.0–55.6 IU/L, 14.0–17.3 IU/L, and 111.0–134.3 IU/L, respectively. The repeated administration of cefquinome did not influence the plasma activities of AST, ALT, GGTP, and ALKP in treated animals. The level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine before treatment was 14.3 ± 0.88 mg/dl and1.70 ± 0.04 mg/dl, which significantly increased on 3rd day (21.0 ± 1.53 mg/dl) and 2nd day (2.33 ± 0.07 mg/dl), respectively. Among hematological parameters, there was significant variation in levels of hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in treated animals. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed in any animal. Conclusion: The results revealed that clinically, the therapy of cefquinome may be continued up to 7 days.
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Assessment of anticarcinogenic potential of Vitex trifolia and Triticum aestivum Linn by in vitro rat liver microsomal degranulation p. 114
Marimuthu Mathankumar, Ramasamy Tamizhselvi, Venkatraman Manickam, Gaurav Purohit
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172269  PMID:26862271
Objective: The main objective of this preliminary study is to confirm the synergistic anticarcinogenic potential of Vitex trifolia and Triticum aestivum ethanolic extracts. Materials and Methods: Rat hepatic microsomal degranulation is a short - term technique that has been used for the detection of potential chemical carcinogens, in vitro. The present study has been carried out to study the inhibition of ribosome- membrane disruption against 3, 8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-pheylphenanthridinium bromide (EB), as the degranulating agent, by measuring the RNA/protein ratios of microsomal membranes in the presence or absence of V.trifolia and T. aestivum extracts. These two extracts were further evaluated for cytotoxic effect in HCT 116 and A549 cell lines. Results:V. trifolia and T. aestivum protects hepatic microsomes against the degranulatory attack by the carcinogen EB showed a significant reduction in the proliferation of the HCT 116 and A549 cancer cell lines. Conclusion: The ethanolic extracts of the plants, V. trifolia and T. aestivum individually possessed anti-degranulatory potential. Importantly they act synergistically, possess appreciable anticarcinogenic properties, based on their ability to inhibit EB induced liver microsomal degranulation.Further these extracts inhibit cell proliferation of cancer cell lines.
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A three generation study with effect of imidacloprid in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation p. 119
Prerna Vohra, Kuldeep Singh Khera
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172270  PMID:26862272
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the dose-dependent toxic effects of imidacloprid on the female ratsthat were treated through three generations (F0, F1, and F2). F2 female rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment to see the long-term effect of imidacloprid. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into three groups of 6 each. Group I served as control. Group II served as treated I and given 1/45th LD50 (10 mg/kg/day) of imidacloprid. Group III served as treated II and given 1/22th LD50 (20 mg/kg/day) of imidacloprid. After 60 days, oral administration of imidacloprid females were mated with normal males to get F1 and F2 generation. F2 generation female rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. Biochemical and a histopathological investigation was done for three groups of F2 generation and statistically analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Average feed intake of F2 female rats was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) at 20 mg/kg/day dose of imidacloprid. There was a significant increase in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, AKP, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Group III rats of F2 generation. There was a significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in plasma and brain of both the imidacloprid treated groups. Tissue samples of liver, kidney, and brain of females of F2 generation showed histopathological condition. Conclusion: The results indicated that imidacloprid at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw/day exerts significant toxicological effects on biochemical and histological studies of F2 generation females as compare to 10 mg/kg bw/day.
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Detection of malathion resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Bathinda District, Punjab p. 125
Jyoti , Nirbhay Kumar Singh, Mranalini Prerna, Harkirat Singh, SS Rath
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172274  PMID:26862273
Objective: The resistance status against malathion in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks collected from Bathinda district, Punjab, was evaluated by adult immersion test (AIT). Materials and Methods: Technical grade malathion was used for conduction of AIT with 2 min immersion time protocol. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks was plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of malathion and was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, LC50, LC95 (95% confidence interval [CI]) and resistance factor (RF). The reproductive parameters of treated ticks viz. egg mass weight, reproductive index (RI), and percentage inhibition of oviposition (% IO) were also studied. Results: The increasing concentration of malathion showed an upward trend in per cent tick mortality. The slope of mortality (95% CI) was 2.489 ± 0.719 (2.489 ± 0.719) and value of goodness of fit (R2) was 0.799. The LC50 (95% CI) and LC95 (95% CI) values were recorded as 9099.2 (8378.6–9881.7) and 41,511.3 (35,060.2–49,149.4) ppm, respectively, with RF as 16.60 indicating level II resistance status. A negative dose-dependent slope of egg mass weight (−91.79 ± 25.15 [−171.8 to −11.76]) was recorded as the survived ticks laid significantly (P = 0.0355) fewer eggs. The mean RI of treated ticks decreased with increasing concentrations of drug and the slope (95% CI) was −0.293 ± 0.059 (−0.482 to −0.105). Further, a dose-dependent significant increase (P = 0.0157) in the mean % IO was recorded in treated ticks. Conclusions: The results of the current study would be useful in the formulation and implementation of effective tick strategies in the region.
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Modulating effect of Enicostemma littorale on the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory and angiogenic markers During 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis p. 130
Shanmugam Manoharan, Duraisamy Rajasekaran, Murugaraj Manoj Prabhakar, Sekar Karthikeyan, Asokan Manimaran
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172276  PMID:26862274
Enicostemma littorale leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This study has taken effort to explore the antitumor initiating potential of E. littorale leaves (ElELet) by analyzing the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X-protein), cell-proliferative (cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor), invasive (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9), and inflammatory (NF-κB and cyclooxygenase-2) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were induced in the buccal pouches of hamsters using the potent site and organ specific carcinogen, DMBA. DMBA application 3 times a week for 14 weeks resulted in tumor formation in the buccal pouches. Hundred percent tumor formations with dysregulation in the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory, angiogenic, and invasive markers were observed in the buccal pouches of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight orally to DMBA treated hamsters significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of above mentioned molecular markers. ElELet thus modulated the expression pattern of all the above mentioned molecular markers in favor of the suppression of cell proliferation occurring in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
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Anti-arthritic activity of Dashanga Ghana (an ayurvedic compound formulation) against Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis in Charles Foster albino rats p. 141
Galib Ruknuddin, BJ Patgiri, PK Prajapati, BK Ashok, B Ravishankar
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172279  PMID:26862275
Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a promising remedy in these cases. There is a need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. Considering this, a polyherbal Ayurvedic compound formulation (Dashanga Ghana) has been studied in experimental animals to evaluate anti-arthritic activity. Materials and Methods: Dashanga Ghana has been prepared in the laboratory by following standard guidelines. Charles Foster albino rats were used to evaluate the activity through Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Results and Conclusions: Dashanga Ghana is found to possess significant anti-arthritic activity. Further studies are required to identify and characterize exact active phyto-constituents and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action, which is responsible for the observed pharmacological profile.
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Alterations in hematological profile of experimentally induced subchronic thiacloprid toxicosis in Gallus domesticus p. 147
Saloni Singla, Harpal Singh Sandhu
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172281  PMID:26862276
Objectives: Thiacloprid, a novel neonicotinoid insecticide is chiefly used as a crop protectant therefore it is likely to cause indirect exposure to poultry through contaminated feed and water because this species is occasionally supplied with feed that is, declared unfit for human consumption. The current study was performed to explore the nonlethal toxic effects of thiacloprid in Gallus domesticus on hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two birds were randomly divided into nine groups. Groups I to IV of four birds each were kept as healthy control. The Groups V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X contained six birds each and were administered thiacloprid at 1 mg/kg/day for 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days, respectively. Results: Thiacloprid caused variable changes in the hematological parameters. There was a significant decline in the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and total erythrocyte count (TEC). The PCV declined to the extent of 23.33 ± 0.76% on day 90 from the 0 day value of 29.75 ± 1.26% of experiment. The Hb concentration decreased from 9.93 ± 0.57 g/dl (0 day) to 7.52 ± 0.62 g/dl (90 days). The TEC declined from the 0 day value of 2.41 ± 0.08 × 106/mm3 to 90 days value of 2.08 ± 0.05 × 106/mm3. The total leukocyte count on 0 day was 12.50 ± 0.76 × 103/mm3 and it showed a significant increase from day 45 (17.80 ± 2.67 × 103/mm3) to day 90 (21.33 ± 1.48 × 103/mm3) of thiacloprid treatment. There was a significant rise in value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate to 19.25 ± 1.22 mm/24 h on day 90 of treatment from the 14.42 ± 1.09 mm/24 h on 0 day. The long-term oral administration of thiacloprid produced no significant alterations in the values of erythrocytic indices. Conclusions: The repeated oral toxicity on thiacloprid in present investigation suggested that it has an adverse effect on health of birds and is moderately risk insecticide in G. domesticus.
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Food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats, Rattus norvegicus p. 152
Beenam Saxena, Shiv Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172286  PMID:26862277
Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A case of trientine overdose p. 158
Ahmed Hashim, Nick Parnell
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172262  PMID:26862278
Wilson disease is a rare genetic hepatic and neurological disorder of copper accumulation. Trientine is usually used as a second line in the management of patients with this condition. We present a case of a large overdose of Trientine (60 g) resulting in self-limiting dizziness and vomiting with no further clinical sequelae or significant biochemical abnormalities. This case shows that Trientine has a good safety profile and hence could be used as a first line treatment in patients with Wilson's disease who suffer from psychiatric complications and who might be at risk of self-harm.
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Psychosis as harbinger of phenytoin toxicity p. 160
Manish Borasi, R Pravin Verma, Sumit Kumar Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172272  PMID:26862279
Psychosis with phenytoin use has earlier been reported only in the context of Vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency. We report a rare case of phenytoin toxicity manifesting as psychosis in the absence of Vitamin deficiency. The importance of recognition of psychosis as a harbinger of phenytoin toxicity and implications for management are discussed.
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Bilateral eyelid ptosis, attributed to vincristine, treated successfully with pyridoxine and thiamine in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia p. 162
Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Ioannis Kyriakidis, Evangelos Pavlou, Efterpi Pavlidou
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172275  PMID:26862280
Vincristine-induced neurotoxicity is an adverse effect commonly seen in pediatric patients treated for cancer. We hereby present a case of a 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed bilateral eyelid ptosis 25 days after the last intravenous administration of vincristine (cumulative dose 14.2 mg i.e., 17.75 mg/m2). The boy was treated with 5 mg/kg thiamine and with 10 mg/kg pyridoxine. Complete recovery of ptosis was noticed 4 weeks after the initiation of Vitamins B1 and B6 supplementation therapy.
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Fipronil compound consumption presenting as status epilepticus p. 165
MY Bharathraj, K Venugopal, Kadappa Jaligidad, Halli Karibasappa, Hemantha Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172280  PMID:26862281
Fipronil is a broadspectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide with gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor inhibitory action causing hyperexcitability of central nervous system. There is no literature reported in the past concerning its acute toxicity in human beings. A case report is useful for workers in medical and veterinary field. Hence, we are reporting a case in which young male intoxicated with fipronil compound was presented to the emergency department for having generalized tonic-clonic seizures and subsequently with the features of delirium for few days. This patient was treated with benzodiazepines which controlled the seizures and antipsychotics were given for few days for treating the psychosis.
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An unsuspected pharmacological Vitamin D toxicity in a child and its brief review of literature p. 167
Manju Nimesh, Pritish Singh, Urmila Jhamb, AP Dubey
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172284  PMID:26862282
Inordinate administration of Vitamin D beyond required doses and duration occurs as a sporadic event among frequent empirical therapies of pharmacological Vitamin D. Such instances lead to Vitamin D intoxication. Systemic hypertension is an unsuspected after-effect of Vitamin D toxicity in a child unlike other toxicity effects such as hypercalcemia, neurological deterioration, etc., Here, we report a case of a 1-year-old child who developed acute hypertension and severe hypercalcemia due to Vitamin D toxicity which was masked by initial dehydration such as illness and brief review of literature about clinical entity.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Eucalyptus oil poisoning p. 170
K Jagadish Kumar, Sandeep Sonnathi, C Anitha, M Santhoshkumar
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172259  PMID:26862283
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An unusual case of triazophos poisoning presenting with New-Onset refractory status epilepticus p. 172
Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla, Vipul Malpani
DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.172283  
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